The Stahl-Eisen-Blätter of the Steel Institute VDEh include the Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblätter (SEP), -Werkstoffblätter (SEW), -Lieferbedingungen (SEL) and -Einsatzlisten (SEE) as well as -Betriebsblätter (SEB). These are technical guidelines which are created in the course of joint work in technical-scientific specialist groups (working committees) and published in German and, for some years now, also in English.
The basic objectives of the Stahl-Eisen-Blätter are:
- Description of the latest technologies to ensure the quality of processes and products
- Description of the property profiles of steels for which standardisation is not yet possible
- Standardisation of the test conditions and description of material properties of different eel groups
- Documentation of the available expert knowledge
- Consideration of the specific requirements of the steel industry
- Consensus-building by the experts
- Accelerating of the implementation of new knowledge into application
- Preliminary work for DIN, CEN and/or ISO standards
Every expert and every company or research institution which is interested in these Stahl-Eisen- Blätter has the unrestricted opportunity to contribute in the work. It is requested that the Stahlinstitut VDEh be informed immediately if any inaccuracies or the possibility of incorrect interpretation become apparent in the application of the sheets, so that any deficiencies can be rectified.
SEP contain guidelines and information on the proper implementation of tests to determine certain material properties and characteristic values of steels. The purpose of the SEP is to standardise the test conditions in pre-standardisation in such a way that the test results are comparable when used properly. SEP are often incorporated into customer specifications and contribute significantly to reducing the testing effort for steel producers and -users. Customers in the steel industry require such characteristic values, e. g. for the construction or technical security of components (lightweight construction, resource conservation).
Stahl-Eisen-Werkstoffblätter (SEW) und -Lieferbedingungen (SEL)
SEW and SEL serve to standardise the functional characteristics of steels in pre-standardisation. Both the knowledge of steel producers and steel users are taken into account regarding the application. The purpose of SEW and SEL is to describe the property profiles of steels for which standardisation has not yet taken place, but which are important for steel producers, -processors and -users. This description is intended to enable a targeted use of the steels and at the same time to gather knowledge about their production, delivery and application and their product forms.
According to current knowledge, SEE serve as a recommendation for the appropriate selection of steels for tools used in certain forming processes.
Special requirements of the steel industry are defined in SEB in order to standardise the planning, production, assembly and maintenance of metallurgical plants and thus be able to carry them out safely and economically. According to SEB, the interchangeability with regard to the connecting dimensions is also guaranteed. In addition to dimensions, materials and calculation methods, they also contain specifications for ordering, delivery and quality assurance. They also consider the issues of occupational safety and environmental protection for the operation of plants.
Sheets in public survey
In this section, finished sheets are published for reasons of transparency. The downloads are working versions and are not valid until official publication. Published STahl-Eisen-Blätter can be purchased in the Steel Data Shop.
All companies, research institutes and experts associated with these topics are given the opportunity to review, supplement and comment. Comments are possible within a period of 6 weeks after publication. These will be checked by the authors and then taken into account if necessary. Comments are requested to stefanie.brockmann_at_vdeh.de. Please use this table template for this purpose.
There are currently no drafts in the public consultation.
Sheets in revision
SEP 1220 - Teile 1 bis 4
Testing and Documentation Guideline for the Joinability of thin sheet of steel, Part 1: General specifications; Part 2: Resistance Spot Welding; Part 3: Laser beam welding; Part 4: MIG-Brazin
SEP 1220 – Teile 6 bis 10 new
Testing and Documentation Guideline for the Joinability of thin sheet of steel, Part 6: Adhesive Bonding, Part 7: Projection Welding of Fasteners, Part 8: Drawn
Testing and Documentation Guideline for the Experimental Determination of Mechanical Properties of Steel Sheets for CAE-Calculations
Description of the mile stones in the Material Approval Process
Microscopical examination of the carbide morhology in steels using comparison charts
Blue fracture test for the evaluation of steels on macroscopic non-metallic inclusions
Drawing time-temperature-transformation diagrams for ferrous alloys
Guidelines for preparation, execution and evaluation of dilatometric transformation tests on iron alloys
Prüfung der Haftung von Zinküberzügen auf feuerverzinktem Feinblech, Kugelschlagprüfung
SEP 1942 new
Cup test for the determination of surface waviness after stretch forming
Unalloyed and alloyed heat-resistant ferritic steels – preheating during welding
Steels for heavy forgings – Quality requirements
Steels for heavy forgings for turbine and generator components
Materials for tools in tube and extrusion presses for the processing of copper and copper alloys
Hot forming tool materials for tools in extrusion presses for the processing of aluminum and aluminum alloys
Recently published sheets
SEP 1220-5 (1. Ausgabe, 12.2020)
Testing and Documentation Guideline for the Joinability of thin sheet of steel - Part 5: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
When developing new materials before they are launched on the market as part of the material approval process the steel producers prove not only the basic material characterisation, but also the processability in terms of joining technology. The reason for this is the requirement for compatibility with the entire further processing process. In the past these tests were carried out according to the specifications of the individual automobile manufacturers. This resulted in a large and cost-intensive test effort which significantly delayed the introduction of new steels and made them unnecessarily expensive.
For this reason the Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP) 1220 was developed and published in 2011 in which the material approval process is described with regard to the joinability. The aim was to create a standardised approval procedure which is recognised by steel manufacturers and users, not only to accelerate the introduction of new materials, but also to simplify the provision of data and the comparability of test results. Part 1: General specifications, Part 2: Resistance spot welding, Part 3: Laser beam welding and Part 4: MIG-brazing were published with the issue date 8.2011.
The 1st edition of Part 5: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) could now be published with issue date 12.2020. The test methods specified in this Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP) are used to determine the suitability of steel sheets for the joining process of gas-shielded metal arc welding (process ISO 4063:135).
The Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP) 1220 describes methods for determination of the joinability of steel sheets without / with surface coating and the documentation of the results. It is meant as a basis for standardised material characterisation by welding, brazing, mechanical joining and adhesivebonding and is intended to standardise the exchange of data between material suppliers, car manufacturers and their suppliers. The SEP 1220 specifies the requirements for implementation. The joinability is assessed by the user based on the results of the joining test and documentation guideline and the specific application.
The basic structure of an SEP for the material approval process of joinability includes both the shape specimen and specimen preparation, the test methods and test conditions used as well as specifications for the experimental procedure up to the subsequent documentation of the test data. However, the results are not evaluated as this should be done depending on the particular application and the user.
SEP 1220-5 can be ordered from StahlDaten Shop or Beuth Verlag.
SEP 1572 (2. Ausgabe 03.2019)
Microscopic testing of free-cutting steels for sulfide non-metallic inclusions using standard images
The Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP) 1572 "Microscopic testing of free-cutting steels for sulfide non-metallic inclusions using standard images" was published in 1971 in order to be able to characterize the formation of inclusions also in steels with deliberately high inclusion content. The test sheet was designed for manual evaluation by means of image reference series and is not directly accessible for image analysis.
The SEP 1572 has now been revised, including the image reference series, with the aim of enabling both manual and image-analytical testing and at the same time ensuring the highest possible correspondence to the 1971 edition. The 2nd edition with issue date March 2019 was published by the Steel Institute VDEh.
The SEP 1572 is published for the first time in English and describes the testing for sulfide particles on the ground joint sample. It applies to free cutting steels, but can also be applied to other steel grades (e.g. with a controlled sulphur content) by agreement. The test can be performed manually by means of a straightening sequence or automatically by means of image analysis systems. In order to minimize the difference between manual and automatic evaluation, the classifications follow a mathematical system. This system has been chosen so that it is in good agreement with the reference series of SEP 1572:1971.
Since, in contrast to manual evaluation, image analysis can be used to determine statistical parameters of the sulfide distribution, a simple Java image analysis tool can be obtained free of charge from the Steel Institute VDEh. If you are interested, please contact stefanie.brockmann_at_vdeh.de.
SEP 1572 can be ordered from StahlDaten Shop or Beuth Verlag.
SEP 1611 (1. Ausgabe 10.2018)
Evaluation of the segregation structure of the core zone on cast slabs
Steel line pipes made of hot-rolled pre-products are often used for the transport of various media (e.g. gas, oil, service and waste water). Slabs produced by continuous casting are used as blanks for the production of these pre-products. Depending on the process and material, core segregation occurs during solidification of the steel. This is differently pronounced depending on the boundary conditions and can have an influence on the processing and service properties.
For quality and process monitoring, especially in the production of steels for pipe manufacture, various methods have therefore been developed in the past for evaluating the core zone of continuously cast slabs (e.g. Mannesmann guideline series), which do not, however, have the status of a generally accessible standard or guideline. Such methods are based on the fact that segregation-related dark areas in the core zone of a slab can be detected after macro-etching.
In the first edition of Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP) 1611 "Evaluation of the segregation structure of the core zone on cast slabs", published by the Steel Institute VDEh with issue date October 2018, various procedures established in practice for evaluating the slab core zone are now brought together based on the current state of the art. For this purpose, the process of sampling, sample preparation, test method, evaluation procedure and the required documentation are specified. Various methods can be used for evaluation: Image directional series, measuring procedures using circular templates or area measuring procedures using digital image analysis.
SEP 1611 can be ordered from StahlDaten Shop or Beuth Verlag.
SEP 1950 (4. Ausgabe 07.2020)
Heat stability testing on shafts
Open-die forges produce heavy forgings for power engineering. Typical components are forged
Components for gas and steam turbines. The shafts used for this purpose must not be bent under operating conditions which would cause high imbalance and thus increased shaft vibrations in the bearings.
The heat stability test is a quality assurance measure to ensure that the shaft runs stably at elevated temperatures. Test criteria for the test were first laid down in 1966 in Stahl-Eisen-Prüfblatt (SEP 1950. In the meantime, the 3rd edition of 1997 has been adapted to the state of the art with the participation of operators of open-die forging shops and energy plant manufacturers, after measurement technology in this area has undergone significant further development. With issue date July 2020, the Steel Institute VDEh publishes the 4th edition of SEP 1950 with the title "heat stability test on shafts", for the first time also with English translation.
The SEP 1950 can be ordered from StahlDaten Shop or Beuth Verlag.
SEW 088 (5. Ausgabe 10.2017)
„Schweißgeeignete un- und niedriglegierte Stähle - Empfehlungen für die Verarbeitung, besonders für das Schmelzschweißen“
Das Stahl-Eisen-Werkstoffblatt (SEW) 088 „Schweißgeeignete un- und niedriglegierte Stähle - Empfehlungen für die Verarbeitung, besonders für das Schmelzschweißen“ inklusive zweier Beiblätter liegt mittlerweile in der fünften Ausgabe vor.
Die erste Ausgabe „Schweißbare Feinkornbaustähle“ erschien vor rund 50 Jahren im Oktober 1969 und fiel in eine Zeit, in der hochfeste Feinkornbaustähle mit Mindeststreckgrenzen grösser 355 MPa bis 690 MPa erstmals in größerem Umfang in der Verarbeitung zum Einsatz kamen. Internationale Anerkennung in Fachkreisen erhielt das SEW 088 dadurch, dass sowohl das t8/5-Konzept als auch das CET-Konzept Eingang in die europäische Normung gefunden haben. Das große Interesse am SEW 088 führte im weiteren Verlauf dazu, dass dem fortschreitenden Erkenntnisstand entsprechende, überarbeitete Auflagen erschienen. Damit ist das Werkstoffblatt SEW 088 neben zwischenzeitlich erschienenen europäischen Regelwerken wie z. B. EN 1011-2 und CEN/TR 10347 auch heute noch eine wertvolle und aktuelle Quelle für den Verarbeiter. Es enthält viele praxisnahe Empfehlungen und fasst verschiedene fachliche Teilaspekte aus anderen Regelwerken in kompakter Form zusammen.
Folgende wesentliche Neuerungen ergeben sich gegenüber der 4. Ausgabe:
- Der Anwendungsbereich wurde präzisiert und erweitert.
- Die Empfehlungen zum Verzicht einer Wärmebehandlung nach einem Warmumformen, wurden an CEN/TR 10347 und DIN EN 13445-4 angeglichen.
- Der wichtige Hinweis zur Vermeidung der Kaltumformung im Temperaturbereich von 200 °C bis 380 °C wurde ergänzt.
- Moderne Trennverfahren wie das Laserstrahlschneiden und Plasmaschneiden wurden neu aufgenommen.
- Die Brennschneidbedingungen wurden überarbeitet und präzisiert.
- Typische Abkühlzeitbereiche wurden ergänzt.
- Ein neuer Abschnitt 4.4 zum Schweißen auf Fertigungsbeschichtungen wurde hinzugefügt.
- Die Empfehlungen für das Flammrichten sind nunmehr an CEN/TR 10347 angepasst.
Das erstmals zweisprachig (deutsch/englisch) verfasste Werkstoffblatt SEW 088 kann über https://shop.stahldaten.de oder Beuth Verlag bezogen werden.
SEW 605 (1. Ausgabe 07.2019)
From hot-working temperatures continuously cooled steels with bainitic microstructure
The reduction in the weight of vehicle components has led to more filigree components and the use of high-strength materials. Conventional solutions using heat-treatable steels do not always meet all requirements in terms of technical reliability, economy and environmental friendliness. Continuously cooled bainitic steels, as they can be produced in the austenitic range as a result of hot forming, are in some cases much better able to combine the above-mentioned aspects, which has led to the successful introduction of such components in automobiles over the past decade. This trend is reflected in a large number of commercially available steel bars and wire rod products. In order to ensure the necessary hardenability, these products are characterized by increased manganese contents, sometimes in combination with chromium, molybdenum and nickel. Such steels are not described in any existing material standard today.
The Stahl-Eisen- Werkstoffblatt (SEW) 605 was published by the Steel Institute VDEh with issue date July 2019 and offers customers a general description of this new class of steel. For naturally cooled steel products, the cooling rate varies depending on the part geometries (or bar steel diameters). In order to achieve constant properties, the steel composition (especially the manganese and chromium content) is adjusted to the respective natural cooling rates.
SEW 605 can be ordered from StahlDaten Shop or Beuth Verlag.
Your contact person
Dr.-Ing. Stefanie Brockmann
Executive Member of the Managing Board
Telefon: +49 211 6707-159